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Temer extingue reserva na Amazônia para ampliar exploração mineral

PHILLIPPE WATANABE E FERNANDO TADEU MORAES - FOLHA DE S. PAULO

O presidente Michel Temer extinguiu nesta quarta (23) uma área de reserva ambiental de 46.450 km² –tamanho equivalente ao do Espírito Santo–, na divisa entre Pará e Amapá, conhecida como Renca (Reserva Nacional de Cobre e seus Associados). A região possui reservas minerais de ouro, ferro e cobre.

A Renca foi criada em 1984, durante o regime militar. Dentro da reserva estão localizadas partes de três unidades de conservação (UC) de proteção integral, de quatro unidades de conservação de uso sustentável (uma delas na qual a mineração era permitida a partir de um plano de manejo) e de duas terras indígenas.

Até então, somente o Serviço Geológico Brasileiro poderia realizar pesquisa mineral ou viabilizar e autorizar qualquer tipo de extração econômica de minerais.
 


A mudança de status era sinalizada desde o final de março e começo de abril pelo Ministério de Minas e Energia e faz parte do "Programa de Revitalização da Indústria Mineral Brasileira".

O decreto, publicado no "Diário Oficial da União", diz que a extinção "não afasta a aplicação de legislação específica sobre proteção da vegetação nativa, unidades de conservação da natureza, terras indígenas".

Luiz Jardim Wanderley, pesquisador da Uerj e membro do Comitê Nacional em Defesa dos Territórios Frente à Mineração, afirma que a extinção tem, antes de mais nada, impacto político. "Coloca mais pressão sobre essas terras indígenas e UCs, abrindo mais uma área de interesse ao setor mineral. É um indicativo de que o governo Temer vai flexibilizar áreas que tinham alguma restrição", diz.

Segundo Mariana Napolitano, coordenadora do núcleo de ciências do WWF Brasil, o crescente interesse pela mineração na área poderia levar à redução das áreas de proteção e a corridas pelo ouro. O resultado disso seria uma explosão demográfica, mais desmatamento, contaminação de recursos hídricos por metais pesados, além de ameaça às populações tradicionais indígenas, diz.

"Exploração de minério perto de áreas protegidas causa impacto em toda a região. A extinção da Renca por decreto, ato que não permite diálogo sobre salvaguardas sociais e ambientais, é uma sinalização bem ruim do governo e vai no sentido da redução de áreas protegidas por meio de medidas provisórias."

Recentemente, cumprindo promessa feita à bancada paraense, Temer enviou ao Congresso projeto de lei que retira 3.490 km² da Floresta Nacional do Jamanxim, no sudoeste do Pará.

Segundo estudo do WWF sobre a Renca, as áreas nas quais a mineração poderia ser realizada –cerca de 30% do total, porção fora de UCs e terras indígenas– não necessariamente coincide com zonas de interesse para mineração.

OUTRO LADO

O Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) reafirma o que assevera o decreto e diz que as unidades de conservação da área não serão afetadas.

O MMA afirma ainda que "qualquer empreendimento que possa impactar as unidades de conservação é passível de procedimento de licenciamento específico, o que garante a manutenção dos atributos socioambientais das áreas protegidas".

Segundo o Ministério de Minas e Energia, "o objetivo é atrair novos investimentos, com geração de riquezas para o país e de emprego e renda para a sociedade, pautando-se sempre nos preceitos da sustentabilidade. Acredita-se ainda que a medida poderá auxiliar no combate aos garimpos ilegais instalados na região".

Procurado pela reportagem, o Ministério de Minas e Energia não retornou sobre qual seria a fração de área passível de exploração dentro da Renca. A assessoria da Presidência da República disse que Michel Temer não irá se manifestar sobre o assunto.

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Raio-X - Renca

Nome
Reserva Nacional de Cobre e seus Associados (Renca)

Área
46.450 km², entre o Amapá e o Pará

Ano de criação
1984

Composição
Áreas de proteção integral: Estação Ecológica do Jari, Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque e Reserva Biológica de Maicuru

Áreas de uso sustentável dos recursos: Reserva Extrativista Rio Cajari, Floresta Estadual do Paru, Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Rio Iratapuru e Floresta Estadual do Amapá

Terras Indígenas: Rio Paru D'este e Waiãpi

Objetivo
Segundo o Ministério de Minas e Energia, evitar o desabastecimento de recursos minerais estratégicos para o país, como ouro, platina, cobre, ferro, manganês e níquel

Riscos
Pressão sobre terras indígenas e Unidades de Conservação; nova corrida pelo ouro; desmatamento e ameaça à biodiversidade

Exploração
Era bloqueada para investidores privados e não ocorreram parcerias com o governo devido ao alto custo operacional

Novidade
O decreto 9.142/2017 retira o status de reserva nacional de algumas áreas da antiga Renca; cerca de 30% do total poderá ser explorado.

Mineração
O setor corresponde a 4% do PIB brasileiro e a produção em 2016 foi de US$ 25 bilhões 

Matéria publicada na Folha de S. Paulo.
 

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