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Joinville (SC) quer que bike volte a ser meio de transporte popular

JEFERSON BERTOLINI, COLABORAÇÃO PARA A FOLHA DE S. PAULO, EM FLORIANÓPOLIS

Sede da única escola do balé Bolshoi fora da Rússia, Joinville costuma ser lembrada como a cidade da dança. Mas há outra designação que seus moradores gostam de usar: cidade das bicicletas.

Joinville é a cidade mais populosa de Santa Catarina, com 569 mil habitantes. Segundo a Secretaria do Planejamento local, 11% dos descolamentos no município são feitos com bicicletas.

No país, a média é de 6% para todas as cidades e de 3% para municípios com mais de 500 mil habitantes, segundo a ANTP (Associação Nacional dos Transportes Públicos).

A Prefeitura de Joinville diz que está trabalhando para elevar o percentual do uso da bicicleta para 20% nos próximos oito anos."Nos anos 1980, 20% dos deslocamentos da nossa cidade eram feitos de bicicleta. Estamos trabalhando para recuperar este patamar", disse o secretário de Planejamento, Danilo Conti.

Segundo o dirigente, a prefeitura está instalando bicicletários, melhorando sinalização e conectando trechos de ciclovias. A meta, para 2025, é elevar os atuais 156 km de vias exclusivas para ciclistas para 730 km.

FROTA

Hoje, segundo estimativa da administração, Joinville tem cerca de 250 mil bicicletas. Na média, há uma bicicleta para cada 2,2 pessoas.A cidade tem 380 mil veículos, de acordo com o Detran (Departamento Estadual de Trânsito), ou um veículo para cada 1,4 morador.

A maioria das pessoas que usa a bicicleta em Joinville são homens com mais de 16 anos de idade, segundo pesquisa feita pelo governo municipal. "Tem coisa melhor? A gente vai aonde quer sem depender de ninguém e não gasta nada", disse o zelador João Cassiano, 66, que tem quatro bicicletas e pedala todos os dias para ir ao trabalho.

Questionados sobre a finalidade da bicicleta, 52% dos participantes da consulta disseram que a usam para lazer, 25% a utilizam para ir ao trabalho e 11% para ir à escola. O levantamento diz ainda que 95% dos entrevistados gostam de bicicleta e que a adotariam como meio de transporte regular se as condições de tráfego e segurança melhorassem.

"A segurança é o principal motivo para deixar de usar a bicicleta. Hoje, pessoas que usam carro acham que as vias foram feitas para carros, mas as vias foram feitas para as pessoas, e as pessoas precisam ser a prioridade", afirmou Dietmar Lilie, presidente do grupo Pedala Joinville.

Para André Geraldo Soares, diretor da União de Ciclistas do Brasil, faltam políticas públicas nas esferas municipal, estadual e nacional para ampliar e consolidar a cultura da bicicleta.

FÁBRICA

A relação de Joinville com as bicicletas começou há 166 anos, com a chegada dos primeiros imigrantes à região. "Nessa época, as primeiras formas de bicicletas já eram bem conhecidas dos alemães", afirmou Valter Bustos, pesquisador e colecionador de bicicletas.

O uso se expandiu a partir de 1920 por conta do crescimento da indústria têxtil e da movimentação de operários. "Como o transporte de massas era precário, as bicicletas tomavam conta."

Nos anos 1950, com nova expansão industrial, a relação de Joinville com a bicicleta cresceu ainda mais. "A bicicleta se tornou veículo de operário, era item de publicidade, com anúncio em jornal", disse Fellipe Giesel, autor de um documentário sobre a história da bicicleta na cidade.

Em 1950, Joinville tinha 9,7 mil bicicletas e 46,5 mil habitantes, segundo dados do arquivo histórico municipal. Na média, havia uma bicicleta para cada 4,7 habitantes.

O título de uma reportagem publicada no jornal "A Notícia" no dia 5 de julho de 1975 demonstrava bem a importância desse meio de transporte: "Automóveis atrapalham bicicletas". À época, Joinville chegou a registrar engarrafamento de bicicletas. As filas ocorriam todos os dias na saída dos operários da Tupy, a maior fundição da América Latina. O fenômeno se repete até hoje, em proporções menores. 

Matéria publicada na Folha de S. Paulo.
 

 

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